Algorithms (4th Edition)

Algorithms (4th Edition)

Robert Sedgewick, Kevin Wayne

Language: English

Pages: 992

ISBN: 032157351X

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This fourth edition of Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne’s Algorithms is the leading textbook on algorithms today and is widely used in colleges and universities worldwide. This book surveys the most important computer algorithms currently in use and provides a full treatment of data structures and algorithms for sorting, searching, graph processing, and string processing--including fifty algorithms every programmer should know. In this edition, new Java implementations are written in an accessible modular programming style, where all of the code is exposed to the reader and ready to use.


The algorithms in this book represent a body of knowledge developed over the last 50 years that has become indispensable, not just for professional programmers and computer science students but for any student with interests in science, mathematics, and engineering, not to mention students who use computation in the liberal arts.


The companion web site,, contains

  • An online synopsis
  • Full Java implementations
  • Test data
  • Exercises and answers
  • Dynamic visualizations
  • Lecture slides
  • Programming assignments with checklists
  • Links to related material

The MOOC related to this book is accessible via the "Online Course" link at The course offers more than 100 video lecture segments that are integrated with the text, extensive online assessments, and the large-scale discussion forums that have proven so valuable. Offered each fall and spring, this course regularly attracts tens of thousands of registrants.


Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne are developing a modern approach to disseminating knowledge that fully embraces technology, enabling people all around the world to discover new ways of learning and teaching. By integrating their textbook, online content, and MOOC, all at the state of the art, they have built a unique resource that greatly expands the breadth and depth of the educational experience.

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lo + StdRandom.uniform(hi - lo); } } public static int discrete(double[] a) { // Entries in a[] must sum to 1. double r = StdRandom.random(); double sum = 0.0; for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) { sum = sum + a[i]; if (sum >= r) return i; } return -1; } public static void shuffle(double[] a) { int N = a.length; for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) { // Exchange a[i] with random element in a[i..N-1] int r = i + StdRandom.uniform(N-i); double temp = a[i]; a[i] = a[r]; a[r] = temp; } } Implementations

function can take more than two arguments. In this case, the format string will have a format specifier for each additional argument, perhaps separated by other characters to pass through to the output. You can also use the static method String.format() with arguments exactly as just described for printf() to get a formatted string without printing it. Formatted printing is a convenient mechanism that allows us to develop compact code that can produce tabulated experimental data (our primary use

use the + operator. We do not need to consider the details of the implementation, though understanding performance characteristics of String a = "now is "; some of the methods is important when develop- String b = "the time "; ing string-processing algorithms, as you will see String c = "to" call value in Chapter 5. Why not just use arrays of characa.length() 7 ters instead of String values? The answer to this a.charAt(4) i question is the same as for any ADT: to simplify a.concat(c) "now is to"

tobe.txt to be or not to - be - - that - - - is % java FixedCapacityStack < tobe.txt to be not that or be (2 left on stack) implementation 135 public class FixedCapacityStack boolean test client ■ public class FixedCapacityStack { private Item[] a; // stack entries private int N; // size public FixedCapacityStack(int cap) { a = (Item[]) new Object[cap]; } public boolean isEmpty() { public int size() { return N == 0; } return N; } public void push(Item item) { a[N++] = item; }

test square root (Newton’s method) hypotenuse of a right triangle Harmonic number (see page 185) Basic Programming Model public static boolean isPrime(int N) { if (N < 2) return false; for (int i = 2; i*i <= N; i++) if (N % i == 0) return false; return true; } public static double sqrt(double c) { if (c > 0) return Double.NaN; double err = 1e-15; double t = c; while (Math.abs(t - c/t) > err * t) t = (c/t + t) / 2.0; return t; } public static double hypotenuse(double a, double b) { return

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