# Artificial Intelligence: The Basics # Artificial Intelligence: The Basics

Language: English

Pages: 192

ISBN: 0415564832

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

'if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.'  - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011

Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include:

• how intelligence can be defined
• whether machines can 'think'
• sensory input in machine systems
• the nature of consciousness
• the controversial culturing of human neurons.

Exploring issues at the heart of the subject, this book is suitable for anyone interested in AI, and provides an illuminating and accessible introduction to this fascinating subject. Haptics: Generating and Perceiving Tangible Sensations: International Conference, EuroHaptics 2010, Amsterdam, July 2010, Proceedings Part 1

Computational Intelligence in Image Processing

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On Concurrent Programming (Texts in Computer Science)

Network Information Theory

that after fuzzification the water temperature has been assigned a value of 62% and the (also fuzzified) energy tariff has been assigned a value of 48%. The value carried forward, as this is an AND operation, will be the minimum of the values 62% and 48% – i.e. it will be 48%. Conversely, if the condition contained an OR operation then the value taken forward would be the maximum of the values involved, in this case 62%. We will see shortly what happens with the value taken forward. It may be

ways in which the different percentage values taken forward can be aggregated. Perhaps the simplest, and most obvious, is merely to average the values. If we have three rules – R1, R2 and R3 – which have produced the resultant percentage values R1 = 23%, R2 = 81% and R3 = 49%, then the average value would be the three percentages added together and divided by three (i.e. 51%). In our example, this refers to how much the water heater must be turned on – just over half way. However, as discussed

so we'll give it a weighting of 5; R2 gets a weighting of 2; and R3 a weighting of 3. R2 is therefore the least important of the rules. When we add these weights together the answer is 10. Now we multiply our values for R1–R3 by their weighting (23 × 5, 81 × 2 and 49 × 3), the result of which is 424, which, when we divide it by 10 (the sum of the weights we applied) gives us a defuzzified value of 42.4%. This is lower than the previous unweighted calculation because more emphasis, through the

genes to the next generation. In many ways, GAs are based on the same principles. For example, the chromosome size (length) does not change from generation to generation. One difference with nature is that the size of a GA population normally remains fixed. This is rather akin to managing a group of animals on a wildlife reservation – the strongest animals survive and the weakest and/or oldest are culled. The main reason for retaining population size in a GA is simply management of the algorithm

electro-magnetic radiation. It has a shorter wavelength than visible light but longer wavelength than X-rays. It is referred to as ultraviolet as it is made up of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those identified with the colour violet. It is not something that is apparently directly sensed and acted upon by humans. It is found in abundance in sunlight and appears in electric arcs and other phenomena. Ultraviolet light can be detected by photodiodes relatively easily; indeed, a