Computer Networks 5th By Andrew S. Tanenbaum (International Economy Edition)

Computer Networks 5th By Andrew S. Tanenbaum (International Economy Edition)

Language: English

Pages: 960

ISBN: 9332518742

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Same Content as US Edition in Different Softcover Design

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Network Information Theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1969 with four nodes: at UCLA, UCSB, SRI, and the University of Utah. These four were chosen because all had a large number of ARPA contracts, and all had different and completely incompatible host computers (just to make it more fun). The network grew quickly as more IMPs were delivered and installed; it soon spanned the United States. Figure 1-27 shows how rapidly the ARPANET grew in the first 3 years. Figure 1-27. Growth of the ARPANET. (a) December 1969. (b) July 1970. (c) March 1971. (d)

Satellites also have the property that the cost of transmitting a message is independent of the distance traversed. A call across the ocean costs no more to service than a call across the street. Satellites also have excellent error rates and can be deployed almost instantly, a major consideration for military communication. 2.4.2 Medium-Earth Orbit Satellites At much lower altitudes, between the two Van Allen belts, we find the MEO (Medium-Earth Orbit) satellites. As viewed from the earth, these

with more bandwidth than standard telephone service are sometimes called broadband, although the term really is more of a marketing concept than a specific technical concept. Initially, there were many overlapping offerings, all under the general name of xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line), for various x. Below we will discuss these but primarily focus on what is probably going to become the most popular of these services, ADSL (Asymmetric DSL). Since ADSL is still being developed and not all the

sent on any of them. With packet switching, packets can be routed around dead switches. Setting up a path in advance also opens up the possibility of reserving bandwidth in advance. If bandwidth is reserved, then when a packet arrives, it can be sent out immediately over the reserved bandwidth. With packet switching, no bandwidth is reserved, so packets may have to wait their turn to be forwarded. Having bandwidth reserved in advance means that no congestion can occur when a packet shows up

link layer. When the sender transmits a frame, it generally also starts a timer. The timer is set to expire after an interval long enough for the frame to reach the destination, be processed there, and have the acknowledgement propagate back to the sender. Normally, the frame will be correctly received and the acknowledgement will get back before the timer runs out, in which case the timer will be canceled. However, if either the frame or the acknowledgement is lost, the timer will go off,

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