# Formal Languages and Compilation (2nd Edition) (Texts in Computer Science)

# Formal Languages and Compilation (2nd Edition) (Texts in Computer Science)

## Stefano Crespi Reghizzi, Luca Breveglieri, Angelo Morzenti

Language: English

Pages: 408

ISBN: 1447168682

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This fully revised and expanded new edition elucidates the elegance and simplicity of the fundamental theory underlying Formal Languages and Compilation.

Retaining the reader-friendly, minimalist style of the first edition, this uniquely versatile textbook describes the essential principles and methods used for defining the syntax of artificial languages, and for designing efficient parsing algorithms and syntax-directed translators with semantic attributes. A comprehensive selection of topics is presented within a rigorous, unified framework, illustrated by numerous practical examples.

Features and topics:

* Presents a novel conceptual approach to parsing algorithms that applies to extended BNF grammars, together with a parallel parsing algorithm (NEW)

* Supplies supplementary teaching tools, including course slides and exercises with solutions, at an associated website

* Unifies the concepts and notations used in different approaches, enabling an extended coverage of methods with a reduced number of definitions

* Systematically discusses ambiguous forms, allowing readers to avoid pitfalls when designing grammars

* Describes all algorithms in pseudocode, so that detailed knowledge of a specific programming language is not necessary

* Makes extensive usage of theoretical models of automata, transducers and formal grammars

* Includes concise coverage of algorithms for processing regular expressions and finite automata

* Introduces static program analysis based on flow equations

This clearly-written, classroom-tested textbook is an ideal guide to the fundamentals of this field for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and computer engineering. Some background in programming is required, and readers should also be familiar with basic set theory, algebra and logic.

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Property 2.23. Chief among them is the family CF of context-free languages, to be introduced soon. From Statement 2.24 follows a containment relation between the two families, REG⊂CF. 2.4 Linguistic Abstraction If one recalls the programming languages he is familiar with, he may observe that, although superficially different in their use of keywords and separators, they are often quite similar at a deeper level. By shifting focus from concrete to abstract syntax we can reduce the bewildering

finish with two examples of type 1 grammars and languages. Example 2.95 (Type 1 grammar of the three equal powers language) The language, proved on p. 76 to be not CF, is It is generated by the context-sensitive grammar: 1. S→aSBC 2. S→abC 3. CB→BC 4. bB→bb 5. bC→bc 6. cC→cc For type 0 and 1 grammars a derivation cannot be represented as a tree, because the left part of a rule typically contains more than one symbol. However, the derivation can be visualized as a graph, where the

term: the local languages on p. 121 can indeed be defined without stars or crosses. Recall that a local language is specified by three local sets: initials, finals, and permitted (or forbidden) digrams. Its specification can be directly mapped on the intersection of three star-free languages as next illustrated. Example 3.50 (Star-free r.e. of local and nonlocal languages) The sentences of local language (abc)+ (Example 3.27 on p. 121) start with a, end with c, and do not contain any digram

deterministic languages) The language which is the union of two deterministic languages, is not deterministic. Intuitively the automaton has to read and store one or more characters a on the stack. Then if the string (e.g., aabb) is in the first set, it must pop an a upon reading a b; but if the string is in the second set (e.g., aabbbb), it must read two letters b before popping one a. Since the machine does not know which the correct choice is (for that it should count the number of b while

also named the grammar symbols the initial m-state, I 0, is the set I 0=closure(〈0 S ,⊣〉), where the closure function was defined on p. 174 the m-state set R={I 0,I 1,…} and the state-transition function ϑ:R×(Σ∪V)→R are computed starting from I 0 as next specified Let 〈p A ,ρ〉, with p A ∈Q and ρ⊆Σ∪{⊣}, be a candidate and X be a grammar symbol. The shift under X, qualified as terminal/nonterminal depending on the nature of X, is as follows: For a set C of candidates, the shift under a symbol