Haptic Rendering: Foundations, Algorithms and Applications

Haptic Rendering: Foundations, Algorithms and Applications

Language: English

Pages: 650

ISBN: 1568813325

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scientific visualization, and creative processes.

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representation, so that distinct inputs will differentially converge on the possible responses. Absolute identification therefore motivates bimodal processes that facilitate perceptual differentiation. It is interesting to consider the absolute-identification task in the context of maximum-likelihood (ML) models of intermodal integration [Ernst and Banks 02]. An ML integrator weights each input in inverse proportion ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ 16 1. Perceiving Object Properties through a Rigid Link

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 253 255 262 264 268 273 13 Contact Levels of Detail 13.1 Psychophysical Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Approaches to Multiresolution Collision Detection . . . . 13.3 Data Structure of CLODs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 278 280 281 206 212 213 216 217 ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ viii Contents 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 Sensation-Preserving Simplification Multiresolution Contact Queries . Experiments .

and bandwidth limitations that permit the user to move off center. This kind of mismatch would seem to be a potential problem for any two-dimensional motion stage. 5.2.3 Collision Forces To simulate collisions with objects, the active tether of the Sarcos Treadport provides a spring-like penalty force while the treadmill is stopped. This penalty force is similar to viscoelastic opposing forces applied by haptic interfaces when a user attempts to push into a hard surface. ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐

sharing between contact force and squeeze force, claiming the squeeze force is a function of the amplitude of oscillation. However, this does not explain how the fingerpad undergoes physical contact and is simultaneously supported by the squeeze film. Minkes [Minikes and Bucher 03] found the pressure profile of a squeeze film to resemble a parabolic shape. The maximum air pressure would be found towards the center of the plate, while the air at the edge of the plate would be at atmospheric pressure.

132 7. Stability of Haptic Displays F Slope = k Energy Leak Flat Line Due to Sampling xt x xt+1 Figure 7.7. Detail of energy leak due to sampling. Due to sampling, the force of the virtual spring remains constant between sampling intervals, as shown in Figure 7.7. Equation (7.7) is the resulting energy leak due to sampling, while at the same time, Equation (7.8) is the energy dissipated by viscous damping (assuming constant intersample velocity). In order to maintain passivity, the

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