High Fidelity Haptic Rendering (Synthesis Lectures in Computer Graphics and Animation)

High Fidelity Haptic Rendering (Synthesis Lectures in Computer Graphics and Animation)

Language: English

Pages: 112

ISBN: 1598291149

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance the level of understanding of complex data sets. They have been effectively used for a number of applications including molecular docking, manipulation of nano-materials, surgical training, virtual prototyping, and digital sculpting. Compared with visual and auditory display, haptic rendering has extremely demanding computational requirements. In order to maintain a stable system while displaying smooth and realistic forces and torques, high haptic update rates in the range of 5001000 Hz or more are typically used. Haptics present many new challenges to researchers and developers in computer graphics and interactive techniques. Some of the critical issues include the development of novel data structures to encode shape and material properties, as well as new techniques for geometry processing, data analysis, physical modeling, and haptic visualization. This synthesis examines some of the latest developments on haptic rendering, while looking forward to exciting future research in this area. It presents novel haptic rendering algorithms that take advantage of the human haptic sensory modality. Specifically it discusses different rendering techniques for various geometric representations (e.g. point-based, polygonal, multiresolution, distance fields, etc), as well as textured surfaces. It also shows how psychophysics of touch can provide the foundational design guidelines for developing perceptually driven force models and concludes with possible applications and issues to consider in future algorithmic design, validating rendering techniques, and evaluating haptic interfaces.

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force and the friction coefficient, the system switches to dynamic mode. In the dynamic mode, the adhesion point follows the contact point. The system returns to static mode if the velocity falls below a certain threshold. 2.1.3 Contact Clustering In the previous section, we have analyzed penalty-based collision response by considering individual contacts. However, the output of the contact determination step (see Chapter 3) has a strong influence on the smoothness of collision response and,

for synthesizing haptic feedback. There is a diverse set of simulation-based rendering methodologies, but we will review two commonly used approaches characterized by their control strategies. The virtual coupling architecture (see Fig. 2.6) is associated with impedance control. The motion of the haptic device is converted to a force acting on the virtual tool by setting a viscoelastic coupling in between [CSB95] and the same force is used as the command for a force control loop. Fig. 2.8 depicts

hull, thus enhancing the robustness of the OBB computation. 3.3.4 Convex Hull Hierarchies—SWIFT++ The SWIFT++ collision detection algorithm by Ehmann and Lin [EL01] is based on BVHs of convex hulls. Ehmann and Lin defined both the process to create the BVHs and the collision queries using convex polyhedra. The algorithm imposes some restrictions on the input models, as they must be orientable 2-manifold polyhedral surfaces, but it offers equally good or better performance than other collision

hierarchical manner. Every P1: OTE/PGN P2: OTE/PGN MOBK043-03 QC: OTE/PGN MOBK043-Otaduy.cls 50 T1: OTE October 17, 2006 16:53 HIGH FIDELITY HAPTIC RENDERING FIGURE 3.7: Bounding spheres and normal cones. Schematic view of the overlap test between two spatialized normal cones, using a dual view cone (in green). Image courtesy of Johnson et al. [JC01, JWC05], University of Utah ( c 2005 IEEE). primitive is associated with its bounding sphere and its normal cone, and primitives are

collision detection methods can barely execute contact queries for force feedback between pairs of objects with 1,000 triangles in complex contact scenarios [KOLM03] at force update rates of 1 kHz. Contact determination becomes particularly expensive in the interaction between textured surfaces. Studies have been done on the highest texture resolution that can be perceived through cutaneous touch, but there are no clear results regarding the highest resolution that can be perceived

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