Multicore Technology: Architecture, Reconfiguration, and Modeling (Embedded Multi-Core Systems)

Multicore Technology: Architecture, Reconfiguration, and Modeling (Embedded Multi-Core Systems)

Muhammad Yasir Qadri

Language: English

Pages: 491

ISBN: 1439880638

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

The saturation of design complexity and clock frequencies for single-core processors has resulted in the emergence of multicore architectures as an alternative design paradigm. Nowadays, multicore/multithreaded computing systems are not only a de-facto standard for high-end applications, they are also gaining popularity in the field of embedded computing.

The start of the multicore era has altered the concepts relating to almost all of the areas of computer architecture design, including core design, memory management, thread scheduling, application support, inter-processor communication, debugging, and power management. This book gives readers a holistic overview of the field and guides them to further avenues of research by covering the state of the art in this area. It includes contributions from industry as well as academia.

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input data. One is sequential execution used for normal instructions (ADD, SUB, etc.) with write back option. The second is pipelined execution for accumulation and instructions with write out option. Instructions with sequential execution take three clock cycles to complete, with each clock cycle corresponding to reading, executing, and writing data to the RAM. A prefetching technique is used for reading instructions from the instruction memory; this involves reading a new instruction word while

is transferred and Pi can be written into the buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iterative computation for inputs {1, 2, 3, 4} of router r . . . Latency/load curves for the path r2,4 → r4,2 with buffer lengths in flits as indicated and uniform traffic (path latency excludes the source queue waiting time) . . . . . . . . . . . Latency/load curves for the path r2,4 → r4,2 with buffer lengths in flits as indicated and localized traffic . . . . . . . Analytical

architectures modeled with SESAM, one GDB stub must be instantiated per processor kind). This com- 80 Multicore Technology: Architecture, Reconfiguration, and Modeling mon stub keeps all the breakpoints and watchpoints set by the GDB user and shares them with all the ArchC processors. As an architecture often uses virtual memory with the help of TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffers), these virtual addresses must be cleverly handled. Indeed, two different tasks can have the same virtual

states required to verify the soundness of the program in this way. We introduce the following notation: • I — is the set of AVOps (Instructions). • C — is the set of Core IDs that cores are referenced by. • S — is the set of Signal IDs that may be signaled by SendSignal. • P — is the fixed program we are verifying. • N = {0, . . . , length(P )−1} ⊆ N — is the set of indices into P considered as a list. This allows us to consider the program as a total function P : N → I. N is considered to be

been applied we proceed to unroll |ρ| times. Let m be the total number of nested loops in β. To calculate the AVOp aj , corresponding to a at iteration j, we apply the following rewrite: aj = (˜ ρn−1 ◦ ρ˜1 ◦ · · · ◦ ρ˜0 ◦ ρ ◦ ρ˜m−1 ◦ · · · ◦ ρ˜n+1 ◦ ρ˜n )j (a ) Notice that we have to apply the induced rewrites of the nested loops following a before applying the loop rewrite ρ and then applying the induced rewrites preceding a. This is because composition of permutations is not a commutative

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